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The Science of Stress: Understanding Its Impact on Your Health

Post written by BFH Staff Writer on April 4, 2024
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As April marks National Stress Awareness Month, it’s crucial to acknowledge the presence of stress in our lives.  Stress is the body’s automatic physical reaction to real or imagined forces, it is a phenomenon that warrants deeper understanding. Unraveling the complexities of stress—its triggers, effects, and coping mechanisms—provides invaluable insights for navigating life’s challenges with resilience. 

Two Types of Stress

When discussing stress, it’s essential to recognize that it comes in various forms, each with its own distinct characteristics and impact on our well-being. Broadly speaking, stress can be classified into two primary types: acute stress and chronic stress.

Acute Stress

Acute stress is the body’s immediate and short-term response to a perceived threat or demand. It’s the kind of stress we experience in response to specific situations or events, such as public speaking, a near miss while driving, or an upcoming deadline. Acute stress triggers the body’s “fight or flight” response, activating the sympathetic nervous system and releasing stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol, which can contribute to stress related eczema on hands.

Physiologically, acute stress can cause rapid heartbeat, shallow breathing, heightened alertness, and increased muscle tension. While acute stress is a natural and adaptive response that can help us navigate challenging situations, prolonged exposure to acute stressors without adequate recovery time can have negative consequences on our physical and mental health.

Chronic Stress

Chronic stress, on the other hand, is a prolonged and persistent state of stress that occurs when individuals are exposed to continuous or recurring stressors over an extended period. Unlike acute stress, which is short-lived and typically resolves once the triggering event has passed, chronic stress can linger for weeks, months, or even years. 

Chronic stress can stem from various sources, including ongoing work pressures, financial difficulties, relationship conflicts, or health problems. The constant activation of the body’s stress response system can lead to a range of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular problems, weakened immune function, digestive disorders, anxiety, depression, and burnout. Managing chronic stress often requires addressing underlying stressors, implementing lifestyle changes, practicing stress-reduction techniques, and seeking professional support when necessary.

What Causes Stress?

Stress can stem from a multiple of sources. These sources can be broadly categorized into two main types: external and internal stressors.

External Stressors

External stressors are the environmental factors that exert pressure on us from the outside world. These include deadlines at work, financial strains, conflicts in relationships, traffic jams, or even noise pollution. The demands of our external environment often place significant demands on our time, energy, and emotional well-being, contributing to feelings of stress and tension.

Internal Stressors

Internal stressors, on the other hand, originate within ourselves. They are often rooted in our thoughts, beliefs, and emotions. Internal stressors may manifest as self-imposed expectations, where we set unrealistically high standards for ourselves, leading to constant feelings of inadequacy or failure.

Examples of internal stressors include perfectionism and unresolved emotional issues. Perfectionism, the relentless pursuit of flawlessness, can also generate internal stress as we strive to meet impossible standards. Additionally, unresolved emotional issues, such as past traumas or unprocessed feelings, can simmer beneath the surface, manifesting as chronic stressors that affect our daily lives.

Treatment for Stress and Management Strategies

Managing stress effectively involves a holistic approach addressing both its root causes and symptoms. Implementing lifestyle changes like regular exercise, a balanced diet, and adequate sleep can bolster resilience. 

Stress-reduction techniques such as mindfulness, yoga, and journaling offer tools for relaxation. Seeking social support, setting boundaries, and managing time efficiently contribute to stress management. Professional support, including therapy and medication, may be necessary for severe cases. By integrating these strategies, individuals can enhance their well-being and cope better with stress.


In essence, stress is an inherent aspect of the human experience, influenced by factors. By understanding its causes, effects, and management strategies, we empower ourselves to navigate life’s challenges with greater resilience and well-being. Whether it’s identifying internal stressors, recognizing physical manifestations of stress, or implementing effective coping mechanisms, taking proactive steps toward stress management is key to leading a fulfilling and balanced life. Remember, amidst the turmoil of stress, there lies an opportunity for growth and self-discovery.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Which physical effect is associated with acute stress?

One common physical effect associated with acute stress is an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. This response prepares the body to react quickly to perceived threats by pumping more blood to the muscles and increasing oxygen intake.

What are the top 10 causes of stress at work?

The top 10 causes of stress at work encompass a range of factors that can vary based on individual situations and organizational dynamics. Common stressors include a heavy workload or unrealistic job expectations, tight deadlines coupled with pressure to perform, and concerns about job security or the possibility of layoffs. Conflict with coworkers or supervisors, along with work-life imbalance due to long hours, can also contribute to workplace stress. Additionally, micromanagement, bullying or harassment, unclear expectations, inadequate resources or support from management, and changes in organizational structure or leadership are identified as significant stressors in the workplace.

What are the causes of stress among teenagers?

Teenagers grapple with various stressors that deeply affect their well-being. Academic pressures, social dynamics, including peer pressure and conflicts, family expectations, financial strain, concerns about body image and identity, and the influence of technology and social media all contribute to their stress. Understanding these factors is vital for providing support and guiding teenagers in developing effective coping mechanisms as they navigate the complexities of adolescence.

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